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Cancer Treatment

Radiological Diagnostic Methods (The First Step Towards Accurate Treatment)

Accurate radiological diagnosis is an essential part of deciding how treatment should be performed. Modern techniques and advanced technology are of paramount importance when performing radiological diagnosis, as well as an experienced radiology staff.

Accurate radiological diagnosis is crucial in deciding whether the cancer needs treatment or not. As well as qualified radiology staff, it is essential that techniques applied with advanced technology are used in accurate diagnosis. The Acıbadem Hospitals Group, which works to this principle and closely follows developments in medical science, is constantly changing its diagnostic equipment in all Acıbadem hospitals and outpatient centers with new high-tech equipment. The Acıbadem Hospitals Group offers diagnosis and treatment services to patients using latest technology equipments, and radiology specialists work together with well-trained and experienced radiology technicians and nurses.

Cutting-Edge Technology in Diagnostics:


PET CT

The PET / CT device is used to identify tumors in their early stages, particularly for cancer treatment, and to determine whether these tumors are malign or benign. The device is also used in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and cardiological disorders.


Pet / CT In Early Diagnosis

PET/CT offers many significant advantages in early diagnosis. It offers the opportunity to identify many disorders at the beginning phase. In pre-PET/CT periods, it was determined only by biopsy whether nodules in the body are cancerous or not, whereas now it is determined at a high rate of precision whether these lesions are cancerous or not with PET/CT.

In PET/CT imaging, it is possible to visualize tumors as small as 5 mm in diameter, as information belonging to the patient’s body images is obtained through advance computer systems. PET/CT, by taking advantage of the increased glucose metabolism, a feature of cancerous cells, facilitates establishment of fast and reliable diagnosis without taking any samples.


Pet / Ct In Metastasis

PET/CT also offers a significant advantage for the determination of whether the disease spread to adjacent tissues or lymph nodes in many cancer types, i.e. whether there is metastasis or not. Since the entire body is visualized at the same time thanks to the images taken via PET/CT, it is also possible to evaluate whether the cancer has spread to another organ. Thus, PET/CT is highly advantageous in determining, for instance, whether a tumor in the lung has spread to other internal organs, the adrenal glands or the lymph nodes (whether there is metastasis or not), in other words for determining the extensity of the disorder which is known as staging.

Pet Ct is performed at six Of Acibadem Hospitals: Acıbadem Maslak Acıbadem Kozyatağı Acıbadem Kadıköy, International Hospital Acıbadem, Adana Acıbadem, Bursa Acıbadem Kocaeli.

Interoperative 3 Tesla MR

Intraoperative MR, an imaging technology which only used at Acıbadem Kozyatağı Hospital in Turkey, facilitates the complete removal of the tumor by providing images during brain surgery. It thus eliminates the risk of that a second operation would be required, due to tumor residues.


Advantages of 3-Tesla MR:

Generates more robust information than low-Tesla systems The 3-Tesla MR device generates faster data with higher resolution during and after the operation, and provides physicians with more reliable information than that obtained from low-Tesla MR systems. The device achieves this thanks to its strong magnetic field. By generating a magnetic field twice as strong as the magnetic field of the 1.5-Tesla MR device, which had been used previously, it receives more signals from tissues.


Works more rapidly

The 3-Tesla MR device works much more rapidly than other devices. This is especially important during brain surgery. The system allows the surgeon to take images during the operation at the required moment without waking the patient and without closing the surgical area. In particular, it addresses surgeons’ concerns that they cannot obtain correct information on the size and direction of the tumor if it is in a place difficult to reach. The chances of the operation’s success improve as images may be evaluated during the operation.


Eliminates the risk of a second operation

Various risks may arise in operations in which intraoperative MR is not used. In these operations, residues cannot be identified due to the fact that they are so small that they cannot be seen with a microscope, or they are of the same color as the brain tissue. As such, there is a 30-40% probability of residues being left over in brain tumor operations. The patient is taken into intensive care after the operation. The determination of whether or not residues are present may be taken on the basis of MR images taken 24 hours after the period of intensive care. In the event that any residues are identified in the MR, a second operation will take place. Here, thanks to its intraoperative feature, a second operation is not required as residues may be fully identified and removed during the operation.


Zero probability of residues

Thanks to the 3-Tesla MR device, there is no chance of residues being left in the brain after the operation. All residues that may be omitted are identified with the images the device takes. Thus, the surgeon has reliable information when it comes to removing these residues as well. One of the worst results of leaving residues is that the tumor may grow again from these residues. The growing tumor may compromise the patient’s quality of life or even threaten the patient’s life again. Another satisfactory result of the complete removal of the tumor is further delays the recurrence of malign brain tumors.


Accurate identification of operation area

Operation-related side effects are eliminated

 

Digital Mammography with Tomosynthesis

A mammography device which delivers excellent two- and three-dimensional image quality at the lowest required dose. With its two dimensional and multi slice three dimensional tomosynthetic imaging capacity, it offers groundbreaking possibilities in the early diagnosis of cancer.

 

Medical Oncology

Medical Oncology covers not only the treatment of cancer patients, but also protection from cancer, cancer scanning and early diagnostic applications.

Medical oncology is a branch of science which covers not only the treatment of cancer patients, but also cancer protection, cancer scanning and early diagnostic applications. In other words, every stage of cancer is a matter of medical oncology. Moreover, in cancer diagnosis and treatment, there is cooperation between various fields such as surgery and radiology. The approach to patients is planned as a multidiscipline in line with scientific data. Treatment is performed by means of medication administered intravenously or orally. However, this practice varies depending on the type of cancer. Treatment planning changes based on the cell type of cancer, the organ where it first appeared and the areas to which it has spread. Treatment is performed as an adjuvant treatment to reduce recurrence risk of the disorder, as a neo-adjuvant treatment to make the bulk available for operation or to protect the organs, or as a palliative treatment to extend lifetime in disorders at later stages and to increase life quality. Treatment can be performed individually or in combination with other therapies.

 

Methods Used In The Application Of Medical Oncology

Chemotherapy (Medicated Therapy): Chemotherapy aims to destroy cancerous cells that grow in an uncontrolled manner due to some changes in their structures. In most cases, the aim is to kill cancerous cells by administering several medications through different mechanisms. The most recent developments in this field are monitored with effective treatments applied at Acıbadem Oncology Centers, in line with global standards.

Hormone Therapy: Hormonal drugs are used in the treatment of tumors that are sensitive to hormones, such as prostate and breast cancers. Drugs are generally administered orally. Another application method is injection.
Immunotherapy (Treatment of the Immune System): Substances that the immune system naturally produces are used to identify and kill cancerous cells by alerting the body’s immune system.

Target-Driven Biological Therapy: One of the most important developments of the last decade in cancer treatment has been the development of highly effective biological therapies with relatively few side effects and which identify targets which are present in cancerous cells but not in normal cells. Such target-driven therapies established for cancer treatment are effective options for many types of cancer and are successfully implemented in many cancer types, especially in breast cancer, intestinal cancer and renal cancer.

Radiation Oncology

Radiation oncology is the discipline that examines, through the use of ionizing radiation, the effects of radiation on the cancer, the behavior of tumors and also covers research in this field. Radiation oncology has two areas of application: Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery.

Radiotherapy (X-Ray Therapy)

Radiotherapy is defined as the treatment of the cancerous tissue or of some non-malignant tumors with radiation. It is also referred to “radiation therapy” or “x-ray therapy” among the public. The beams used in radiotherapy aim to stop cancerous cells from growing or to kill them. Radiotherapy is applied frequently in the treatment of cancer. As such, after being diagnosed with cancer, 60-80 percent of cancer patients need at least one dose of radiotherapy.

Treatment Devices Used in the Application of Radiation Oncology:

Rapidarc

Rapidarc is a high-tech radiotherapy device that reduces the amount of time patients have to undergo radiation therapy. It provides greater comfort and ease for the patient by reducing the length of radiotherapy sessions from 15-30 minutes to as little as 2 minutes.
Trilogy

Trilogy is a type of linear accelerator, that is to say, a LINAC device, used in radio therapy treatment. The Trilogy device unites the various features found in other devices, allowing accurate intervention by specialists in the shortest space of time and to an ideal proportion. This means the patient receives the most accurate treatment in the shortest space of time.

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy is a method used to raise local control of the disorder by increasing the dose of radiation applied to the tumor before and after external radiotherapy. However, it may also be used on its own for curative purposes in patients whose situation is suitable for such treatment.

In brachytherapy, radioactive sources are placed in the tumor and target tissues with unique methods; thus, limitation of dose around sources is provided.

Techniques Used in the Application of Radiation Oncology

IGRT: Image Guided Radiation Therapy
IMRT: Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy
Conformal Radiotherapy: 3D Conformal Radiotherapy
SRT/SRS: Stereotactic Radiotherapy / Stereotactic Radiosurgery

SRS / SRT: Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), which can be explained as the treatment of a specific target by means of coordinates, refers to the complete destruction of the tumor in one single session through high doses of radiation after 3-D coordinates of the target are determined. When this therapy is applied in more than one session (generally 3-5 session), it is called  Stereotactic Radiotherapy (SRT).

Fields of Application for Radiotherapy

It is possible to separate radiotherapy in two main groups depending on the state of the disease:

Curative Radiotherapy:

In the light of the available information about the disease, it is applied in cases where the disease can be completely treated. It can be applied alone or with surgery and/or chemotherapy.

Palliative Radiotherapy:

Applied in cases where it is impossible to completely destroy the disease. The goal is to prevent and relieve suffering and to improve quality of life for people facing serious, complex illness. For instance, the bone pain suffered by a patient can be reduced by radiotherapy. Blood loss can be brought under control with radiotherapy applied on hemorrhagic tumors. The radiation dose given in this type of radiotherapy is lesser than the dose given in curative radiotherapy. The treatment duration is also shorter.
Radiosurgery (Scalpel-Free and Bloodless Surgical Treatment Using Beams)

The fundamental aim in radiosurgery, one of the fields of application of radiation oncology, is to direct many low-energy beams to the diseased area, and by focusing on the diseased point, to direct high-energy beams only to this point.
The aim is to shrink or kill the cancerous cells with intense beams while the surrounding healthy tissues are protected from the harmful effects of radiation.

 

 

 

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